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The Epistemology of Fake News

The Epistemology of Fake News PDF Author: Sven Bernecker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192609424
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
News is vital for a healthy democracy. Collective decision-making requires accurate, reliable information. Nevertheless, much of the information we encounter is inadequate for this task. And some—peddled by politicians, profiteers, bots and algorithms—is fake. Social media platforms and emerging technologies allow fake news to dominate our information landscape. An adequate understanding our current information landscape calls for a new discipline, the epistemology of fake news. The epistemology of fake news studies knowledge communication under imperfect conditions. This book is the first sustained inquiry into the new epistemology of fake news. The chapters, authored by established and emerging names in the field, pursue three goals. First, to analyse the meaning and novelty of 'fake news' and related notions, such as 'conspiracy theory.' Second, to discuss the mechanics of fake news, exploring various practices that generate or promote fake news. Third, to investigate potential therapies for fake news.

The Epistemology of Fake News

The Epistemology of Fake News PDF Author: Sven Bernecker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198863977
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
Fake news is an important topic of current social concern. This book is the first sustained inquiry into the epistemology of fake news. The chapters examine the meaning of the term 'fake news', discuss practices that generate or promote fake news, and investigate potential therapies for the problems it presents.

The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology

The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology PDF Author: Michael Hannon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000371948
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 504

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Book Description
As political discourse had been saturated with the ideas of "post-truth", "fake news", "epistemic bubbles", and "truth decay", it was no surprise that in 2017 The New Scientist declared: "Philosophers of knowledge, your time has come." Political epistemology has old roots, but is now one of the most rapidly growing and important areas of philosophy. The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology is an outstanding reference source to this exciting field, and the first collection of its kind. Comprising 41 chapters by an international team of contributors, it is divided into seven parts: Politics and truth: historical and contemporary perspectives Political disagreement and polarization Fake news, propaganda, and misinformation Ignorance and irrationality in politics Epistemic virtues and vices in politics Democracy and epistemology Trust, expertise, and doubt. Within these sections crucial issues and debates are examined, including: post-truth, disagreement and relativism, epistemic networks, fake news, echo chambers, propaganda, ignorance, irrationality, political polarization, virtues and vices in public debate, epistocracy, expertise, misinformation, trust, and digital democracy, as well as the views of Plato, Aristotle, Mòzǐ, medieval Islamic philosophers, Mill, Arendt, and Rawls on truth and politics. The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology is essential reading for those studying political philosophy, applied and social epistemology, and politics. It is also a valuable resource for those in related disciplines such as international relations, law, political psychology, political science, communication studies, and journalism.

The Epistemology of Deceit in a Postdigital Era

The Epistemology of Deceit in a Postdigital Era PDF Author: Alison MacKenzie
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303072154X
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 296

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Book Description
This edited book collection offers strong theoretical and philosophical insight into how digital platforms and their constituent algorithms interact with belief systems to achieve deception, and how related vices such as lies, bullshit, misinformation, disinformation, and ignorance contribute to deception. This inter-disciplinary collection explores how we can better understand and respond to these problematic practices. The Epistemology of Deceit in a Postdigital Era: Dupery by Design will be of interest to anyone concerned with deception in a ‘postdigital’ era including fake news, and propaganda online. The election of populist governments across the world has raised concerns that fake news in online platforms is undermining the legitimacy of the press, the democratic process, and the authority of sources such as science, the social sciences and qualified experts. The global reach of Google, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and other platforms has shown that they can be used to create and spread fake and misleading news quickly and without control. These platforms operate and thrive in an increasingly balkanised media eco-system where networks of users will predominantly access and consume information that conforms to their existing worldviews. Conflicting positions, even if relevant and authoritative, are suppressed, or overlooked in everyday digital information consumption. Digital platforms have contributed to the prolific spread of false information, enabled ignorance in online news consumers, and fostered confusion over determining fact from fiction. The collection explores: Deception, what it is, and how its proliferation is achieved in online platforms. Truth and the appearance of truth, and the role digital technologies play in pretending to represent truth. How we can counter these vices to protect ourselves and our institutions from their potentially baneful effects. Chapter 15 is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology

The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology PDF Author: Michael Hannon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000371921
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 522

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Book Description
As political discourse had been saturated with the ideas of "post-truth", "fake news", "epistemic bubbles", and "truth decay", it was no surprise that in 2017 The New Scientist declared: "Philosophers of knowledge, your time has come." Political epistemology has old roots, but is now one of the most rapidly growing and important areas of philosophy. The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology is an outstanding reference source to this exciting field, and the first collection of its kind. Comprising 41 chapters by an international team of contributors, it is divided into seven parts: Politics and truth: historical and contemporary perspectives Political disagreement and polarization Fake news, propaganda, and misinformation Ignorance and irrationality in politics Epistemic virtues and vices in politics Democracy and epistemology Trust, expertise, and doubt. Within these sections crucial issues and debates are examined, including: post-truth, disagreement and relativism, epistemic networks, fake news, echo chambers, propaganda, ignorance, irrationality, political polarization, virtues and vices in public debate, epistocracy, expertise, misinformation, trust, and digital democracy, as well as the views of Plato, Aristotle, Mòzǐ, medieval Islamic philosophers, Mill, Arendt, and Rawls on truth and politics. The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology is essential reading for those studying political philosophy, applied and social epistemology, and politics. It is also a valuable resource for those in related disciplines such as international relations, law, political psychology, political science, communication studies, and journalism.

Political Epistemology

Political Epistemology PDF Author: Elizabeth Edenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192645382
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 336

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Book Description
This collection explores one of the most rapidly growing area of philosophy: political epistemology. Epistemological issues are at the center of our political lives. It has become increasingly difficult to discern legitimate sources of evidence, misinformation spreads faster than ever, and the role of truth in politics has allegedly decayed in recent years. It is therefore no coincidence that political discourse is currently saturated with epistemic notions like “post-truth,” “fake news,” “truth decay,” “echo chambers,” and “alternative facts.” Political Epistemology brings together leading philosophers to explore ways in which the analytic and conceptual tools of epistemology bear on political philosophy, and vice versa. It is organized around three broad themes: truth and knowledge in politics; epistemic problems for democracy; and disagreement and polarization. The contributors provide new and rich insights on topics such as: propaganda, fake news, weaponized skepticism, belief polarization, political disagreement, the epistemic value of democracy, voter ignorance, irrationality in politics, and identity politics. A premise underlying the development of political epistemology is that progress on certain foundational issues in both political philosophy and epistemology cannot be achieved without sharing insights across fields, beyond a certain point. This will be a foundational text for philosophers, political scientists, and political psychologists for years to come.

Prejudice

Prejudice PDF Author: Endre Begby
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192594087
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 224

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Book Description
Prejudiced beliefs may certainly seem like defective beliefs. But in what sense are they defective? Many will be false and harmful, but philosophers have further argued that prejudiced belief is defective also in the sense that it could only arise from distinctive kinds of epistemic irrationality: we could acquire or retain our prejudiced beliefs only by violating our epistemic responsibilities. It is also assumed that we are only morally responsible for the harms that prejudiced beliefs cause because, in forming these beliefs in the first place, we are violating our epistemic responsibilities. In Prejudice, Endre Begby argues that these common convictions are misguided. His discussion shows in detail that there are many epistemically justified pathways to prejudiced belief, and that it is a mistake to lean on the concept of epistemic responsibility to articulate our ethical responsibilities. Doing so unreasonably burdens victims of prejudice with having to show that their victimizers were in a position to know better. Accordingly, Begby provides an account of moral responsibility for harm which does not depend on finding grounds for epistemic blame. This view is supported by a number of examples and case studies at individual, collective, and institutional levels of decision making. Additionally, Begby develops a systematic platform for "non-ideal epistemology" which would apply to a wide range of other social and epistemic phenomena of current concern, such as fake news, conspiracy theories, science scepticism, and more.

Post-Truth, Fake News

Post-Truth, Fake News PDF Author: Michael A. Peters
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811080135
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 224

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Book Description
This edited collection brings together international authors to discuss the meaning and purpose of higher education in a “post-truth” world. The editors and authors argue that notions such as “fact” and “evidence” in a post-truth era must be understood not only politically, but also socially and epistemically. The essays philosophically examine the post-truth environment and its impact on education with respect to our most basic ideas of what universities, research and education are or should be. The book brings together authors working in Australia, China, Croatia, Romania, Canada, New Zealand, Portugal, Sweden, UK and USA.

Scepticism: A Very Short Introduction

Scepticism: A Very Short Introduction PDF Author: Duncan Pritchard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192564498
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 152

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Book Description
Throughout history scepticism and the urge to question accepted truths has been a powerful force for change and growth. Today, as we are bombarded by adverts, scientific studies praising the latest superfoods, and political rhetoric, a healthy amount of scepticism is widely encouraged. But when is such scepticism legitimate - for example, as a driver of new ideas - and when is it problematic? And what role might adopting a sceptical outlook play in leading an intellectually virtuous life? In this Very Short Introduction Duncan Pritchard explores both the advantages of scepticism, in challenging outdated notions, and also how it can have unhelpful social consequences, in generating distrust. He considers the role of scepticism at the source of contemporary social and political movements such as climate change denial, post-truth politics, and fake news. Pritchard also examines the philosophical arguments for a radical form of scepticism which maintains that knowledge is impossible, and explores some of the main responses to these arguments. Finally, he considers the part scepticism might play in applying better thinking and learning to achieve a more meaningful life. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Understanding Ignorance

Understanding Ignorance PDF Author: Daniel R. DeNicola
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262036444
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 250

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Book Description
The End of Knowledge -- Omniscience -- Arguments from Ignorance -- 10 Managing Ignorance -- Responding to the Unknown -- Coping with Ignorance -- Transformations in the Dark -- Unpredictability and Commitment -- Chance -- From Possibility to Probability -- The Chance of Rain -- Other Intellectual Tools -- V Ignorance as Horizon -- 11 The Horizon of Ignorance -- Epistemic Luck -- How Learning Creates Ignorance -- Freedom, Creativity, and Ignorance -- Ignorance and the Possible -- Wonder and the Shepherd of Possibilities -- Ever More: A Conclusion -- Epistemology: Context and Content -- Epilogue: Ignorance and Epistemology -- Beyond Propositional Knowledge -- Negation and Complexity -- Bivalency and Scalar Gradience -- Discovery and Justification -- Individual Knowers and Epistemic Communities -- Epistemic Value -- Conclusion -- Notes -- 1 The Impact of Ignorance -- 2 Conceiving Ignorance -- 3 Dwelling in Ignorance -- 4 Innocence and Ignorance -- 5 Mapping Our Ignorance -- 6 Constructed Ignorance -- 7 The Ethics of Ignorance -- 8 Virtues and Vices of Ignorance -- 9 The Limits of the Knowable -- 10 Managing Ignorance -- 11 The Horizon of Ignorance -- Epilogue: Ignorance and Epistemology -- Bibliography -- Index