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Countability in Natural Language

Countability in Natural Language PDF Author: Hana Filip
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 131683266X
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
This book focuses on current theoretical and empirical research into countability in the nominal domain, and to a lesser extent in the verbal domain. The presented state-of-the-art studies are situated within compositional semantics combined with the theory of mereology, and draw on a wealth of data, some of which have hitherto been unknown, from a number of typologically distinct languages. Some contributions propose enrichments of classical extensional mereology with topological and temporal notions as well as with type theory and probabilistic models. The book also presents analyses that rely on cutting-edge empirical research (experimental, corpus-based) into meaning in language. It is suitable as a point of departure for original research or material for seminars in semantics, philosophy of language, psycholinguistics and other fields of cognitive science. It is of interest not only to a semanticist, but also to anybody who wishes to gain insights into the contemporary research into countability.

Countability in Natural Language

Countability in Natural Language PDF Author: Hana Filip
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 131683266X
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
This book focuses on current theoretical and empirical research into countability in the nominal domain, and to a lesser extent in the verbal domain. The presented state-of-the-art studies are situated within compositional semantics combined with the theory of mereology, and draw on a wealth of data, some of which have hitherto been unknown, from a number of typologically distinct languages. Some contributions propose enrichments of classical extensional mereology with topological and temporal notions as well as with type theory and probabilistic models. The book also presents analyses that rely on cutting-edge empirical research (experimental, corpus-based) into meaning in language. It is suitable as a point of departure for original research or material for seminars in semantics, philosophy of language, psycholinguistics and other fields of cognitive science. It is of interest not only to a semanticist, but also to anybody who wishes to gain insights into the contemporary research into countability.

Natural Language Processing – IJCNLP 2005

Natural Language Processing – IJCNLP 2005 PDF Author: Robert Dale
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540291725
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 1051

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Book Description
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, IJCNLP 2005, held in Jeju Island, Korea in October 2005. The 88 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 289 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on information retrieval, corpus-based parsing, Web mining, rule-based parsing, disambiguation, text mining, document analysis, ontology and thesaurus, relation extraction, text classification, transliteration, machine translation, question answering, morphological analysis, text summarization, named entity recognition, linguistic resources and tools, discourse analysis, semantic analysis NLP applications, tagging, language models, spoken language, and terminology mining.

Subatomic quantification

Subatomic quantification PDF Author: Marcin Wągiel
Publisher: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961103151
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 334

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Book Description
The goal of this book is to explore the relationship between the cognitive notion of parthood and various grammatical devices expressing this concept in natural language. The monograph aims to investigate syntactic constructions and lexical categories, e.g., partitives, whole-adjectives, and multipliers, encoding different kinds of part-whole structures both in Slavic and non-Slavic languages. It is envisioned to inspire radical rethinking of the ontology of models accounting for nominal semantics. Specifically, it provides novel evidence for a mereotopological approach to meaning, i.e., a theory of wholes that captures not only parthood but also topological relations holding between parts. This evidence comes from the phenomenon of subatomic quantification, i.e., quantification over parts of referents of concrete count nouns.

Count and Mass Across Languages

Count and Mass Across Languages PDF Author: Diane Massam
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191613185
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
This volume explores the expression of the concepts count and mass in human language and probes the complex relation between seemingly incontrovertible aspects of meaning and their varied grammatical realizations across languages. In English, count nouns are those that can be counted and pluralized (two cats), whereas mass nouns cannot be, at least not without a change in meaning (#two rices). The chapters in this volume explore the question of the cognitive and linguistic universality and variability of the concepts count and mass from philosophical, semantic, and morpho-syntactic points of view, touching also on issues in acquisition and processing. The volume also significantly contributes to our cross-linguistic knowledge, as it includes chapters with a focus on Blackfoot, Cantonese, Dagaare, English, Halkomelem, Lithuanian, Malagasy, Mandarin, Ojibwe, and Persian, as well as discussion of several other languages including Armenian, Hungarian, and Korean. The overall consensus of this volume is that while the general concepts of count and mass are available to all humans, forms of grammaticalization involving number, classifiers, and determiners play a key role in their linguistic treatment, and indeed in whether these concepts are grammatically expressed at all. This variation may be reflect the fact that count/mass is just one possible realization of a deeper and broader concept, itself related to the categories of nominal and verbal aspect.

Natural Language Processing in Artificial Intelligence — NLPinAI 2021

Natural Language Processing in Artificial Intelligence — NLPinAI 2021 PDF Author: Roussanka Loukanova
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030901386
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 126

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Book Description
The book covers theoretical work, approaches, applications, and techniques for computational models of information, language, and reasoning. Computational and technological developments that incorporate natural language are proliferating. Adequate coverage of natural language processing in artificial intelligence encounters problems on developments of specialized computational approaches and algorithms. Many difficulties are due to ambiguities in natural language and dependency of interpretations on contexts and agents. Classical approaches proceed with relevant updates, and new developments emerge in theories of formal and natural languages, computational models of information and reasoning, and related computerized applications. Its focus is on computational processing of human language and relevant medium languages, which can be theoretically formal, or for programming and specification of computational systems. The goal is to promote intelligent natural language processing, along with models of computation, language, reasoning, and other cognitive processes.

Mathematics, Substance and Surmise

Mathematics, Substance and Surmise PDF Author: Ernest Davis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331921473X
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 379

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Book Description
The seventeen thought-provoking and engaging essays in this collection present readers with a wide range of diverse perspectives on the ontology of mathematics. The essays address such questions as: What kind of things are mathematical objects? What kinds of assertions do mathematical statements make? How do people think and speak about mathematics? How does society use mathematics? How have our answers to these questions changed over the last two millennia, and how might they change again in the future? The authors include mathematicians, philosophers, computer scientists, cognitive psychologists, sociologists, educators and mathematical historians; each brings their own expertise and insights to the discussion. Contributors to this volume: Jeremy Avigad Jody Azzouni David H. Bailey David Berlinski Jonathan M. Borwein Ernest Davis Philip J. Davis Donald Gillies Jeremy Gray Jesper Lützen Ursula Martin Kay O’Halloran Alison Pease Steven Piantadosi Lance Rips Micah T. Ross Nathalie Sinclair John Stillwell Hellen Verran

The Lexicon

The Lexicon PDF Author: James Pustejovsky
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108573525
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
What is the lexicon, what does it contain, and how is it structured? What principles determine the functioning of the lexicon as a component of natural language grammar? What role does lexical information play in linguistic theory? This accessible introduction aims to answer these questions, and explores the relation of the lexicon to grammar as a whole. It includes a critical overview of major theoretical frameworks, and puts forward a unified treatment of lexical structure and design. The text can be used for introductory and advanced courses, and for courses that touch upon different aspects of the lexicon, such as lexical semantics, lexicography, syntax, general linguistics, computational lexicology and ontology design. The book provides students with a set of tools which will enable them to work with lexical data for all kinds of purposes, including an abundance of exercises and in-class activities designed to ensure that students are actively engaged with the content and effectively acquire the necessary knowledge and skills they need.

Unity and Plurality

Unity and Plurality PDF Author: Massimiliano Carrara
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191025623
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
Unity and Plurality presents novel ways of thinking about plurality while casting new light on the interconnections among the logical, philosophical, and linguistic aspects of plurals. The volume brings together new work on the logic and ontology of plurality and on the semantics of plurals in natural language. Plural reference, the view that definite plurals such as 'the students' refer to several entities at once (the individual students), is an approach favoured by logicians and philosophers, who take sentences with plurals ('the students gathered') not to be committed to entities beyond individuals, entities such as classes, sums, or sets. By contrast, linguistic semantics has been dominated by a singularist approach to plurals, taking the semantic value of a definite plural such as 'the students' to be a mereological sum or set. Moreover, semantics has been dominated by a particular ontological view of plurality, that of extensional mereology. This volume aims to build a bridge between the two traditions and to show the fruitfulness of nonstandard mereological approaches. A team of leading experts investigates new perspectives that arise from plural logic and non-standard mereology and explore novel applications to natural language phenomena.

Classifier Structures in Mandarin Chinese

Classifier Structures in Mandarin Chinese PDF Author: Niina Ning Zhang
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110304996
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 331

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Book Description
This monograph addresses fundamental syntactic issues of classifier constructions, based on a thorough study of a typical classifier language, Mandarin Chinese. It shows that the contrast between count and mass is not binary. Instead, there are two independently attested features: Numerability, the ability of a noun to combine with a numeral directly, and Delimitability, the ability of a noun to be modified by a delimitive modifier, such as size, shape, or boundary modifier. Although all nouns in Chinese are non-count nouns, there is still a mass/non-mass contrast, with mass nouns selected by individuating classifiers and non-mass nouns selected by individual classifiers. Some languages have the counterparts of Chinese individuating classifiers only, some languages have the counterparts of Chinese individual classifiers only, and some other languages have no counterpart of either individual or individuating classifiers of Chinese. The book also reports that unit plurality can be expressed by reduplicative classifiers in the language. Moreover, for the constituency of a numeral expression, an individual, individuating, or kind classifier combines with the noun first and then the numeral is integrated; but a partitive or collective classifier, like a measure word, combines with the numeral first, before the noun is integrated into the whole nominal structure. Furthermore, the book identifies the syntactic positions of various uses of classifiers in the language. A classifier is at a functional head position that has a dependency with a numeral, or a position that has a dependency with a generic or existential quantifier, or a position that represents the singular-plural contrast, or a position that licenses a delimitive modifier when the classifier occurs in a compound.

Formal approaches to number in Slavic and beyond

Formal approaches to number in Slavic and beyond PDF Author: Mojmír Dočekal
Publisher: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961103143
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 506

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Book Description
The goal of this collective monograph is to explore the relationship between the cognitive notion of number and various grammatical devices expressing this concept in natural language with a special focus on Slavic. The book aims at investigating different morphosyntactic and semantic categories including plurality and number-marking, individuation and countability, cumulativity, distributivity and collectivity, numerals, numeral modifiers and classifiers, as well as other quantifiers. It gathers 19 contributions tackling the main themes from different theoretical and methodological perspectives in order to contribute to our understanding of cross-linguistic patterns both in Slavic and non-Slavic languages.