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Genetics in the Madhouse

Genetics in the Madhouse PDF Author: Theodore M. Porter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691203237
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 464

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Book Description
The untold story of how hereditary data in mental hospitals gave rise to the science of human heredity In the early 1800s, a century before there was any concept of the gene, physicians in insane asylums began to record causes of madness in their admission books. Almost from the beginning, they pointed to heredity as the most important of these causes. Genetics in the Madhouse is the untold story of how the collection of hereditary data in asylums and prisons gave rise to a new science of human heredity. Theodore Porter looks at the institutional use of innovative quantitative practices—such as pedigree charts and censuses of mental illness—that were worked out in the madhouse long before the manipulation of DNA became possible in the lab. Genetics in the Madhouse brings to light the hidden history behind modern genetics and deepens our appreciation of the moral issues at stake in data work conducted at the border of subjectivity and science.

Madness and Genetic Determinism

Madness and Genetic Determinism PDF Author: Patrick D. Hahn
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 303021866X
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 193

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Book Description
The book covers important topics in the psychiatric genetics (PG) field. Many of these have been overlooked in mainstream accounts, and many contemporary PG researchers have omitted or whitewashed the eugenic and “racial hygiene” origins of the field. The author critically analyzes PG evidence in support of genetic claims which, given the lack of gene discoveries, are based mainly on the results of psychiatric twin and adoption studies. Given that the evidence in favor of genetic influences is much weaker than mainstream sources report, due to serious issues in twin and adoption research, the author points to environmental factors, including trauma, as the main causes of conditions such as schizophrenia.

Heredity under the Microscope

Heredity under the Microscope PDF Author: Soraya de Chadarevian
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022668525X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 272

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Book Description
By focusing on chromosomes, Heredity under the Microscope offers a new history of postwar human genetics. Today chromosomes are understood as macromolecular assemblies and are analyzed with a variety of molecular techniques. Yet for much of the twentieth century, researchers studied chromosomes by looking through a microscope. Unlike any other technique, chromosome analysis offered a direct glimpse of the complete human genome, opening up seemingly endless possibilities for observation and intervention. Critics, however, countered that visual evidence was not enough and pointed to the need to understand the molecular mechanisms. Telling this history in full for the first time, Soraya de Chadarevian argues that the often bewildering variety of observations made under the microscope were central to the study of human genetics. Making space for microscope-based practices alongside molecular approaches, de Chadarevian analyzes the close connections between genetics and an array of scientific, medical, ethical, legal, and policy concerns in the atomic age. By exploring the visual evidence provided by chromosome research in the context of postwar biology and medicine, Heredity under the Microscope sheds new light on the cultural history of the human genome.

Mobilizing Mutations

Mobilizing Mutations PDF Author: Daniel Navon
Publisher:
ISBN: 022663809X
Category : Human chromosome abnormalities
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
With every passing year, more and more people learn that they or their young or unborn children carries a genetic mutation. But what does this mean for the way we understand a person? Today, genetic mutations are being used to diagnose novel conditions like the XYY, Fragile X, NGLY1 mutation, and 22q11.2 Deletion syndromes, carving out rich new categories of human disease and difference. Daniel Navon calls this form of categorization "genomic designation," and in Mobilizing Mutations he shows how mutations, and the social factors that surround them, are reshaping human classification. Drawing on a wealth of fieldwork and historical material, Navon presents a sociological account of the ways genetic mutations have been mobilized and transformed in the sixty years since it became possible to see abnormal human genomes, providing a new vista onto the myriad ways contemporary genetic testing can transform people's lives. Taking us inside these shifting worlds of research and advocacy over the last half century, Navon reveals the ways in which knowledge about genetic mutations can redefine what it means to be ill, different, and ultimately, human.

Blood Relations

Blood Relations PDF Author: Jenny Bangham
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022674017X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 328

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Book Description
Blood is messy, dangerous, and charged with meaning. By following it as it circulates through people and institutions, Jenny Bangham explores the intimate connections between the early infrastructures of blood transfusion and the development of human genetics. Focusing on mid-twentieth-century Britain, Blood Relations connects histories of eugenics to the local politics of giving blood, showing how the exchange of blood carved out networks that made human populations into objects of medical surveillance and scientific research. Bangham reveals how biology was transformed by two world wars, how scientists have worked to define racial categories, and how the practices and rhetoric of public health made genetics into a human science. Today, genetics is a powerful authority on human health and identity, and Blood Relations helps us understand how this authority was achieved.

Data Journeys in the Sciences

Data Journeys in the Sciences PDF Author: Sabina Leonelli
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030371778
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 412

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Book Description
This groundbreaking, open access volume analyses and compares data practices across several fields through the analysis of specific cases of data journeys. It brings together leading scholars in the philosophy, history and social studies of science to achieve two goals: tracking the travel of data across different spaces, times and domains of research practice; and documenting how such journeys affect the use of data as evidence and the knowledge being produced. The volume captures the opportunities, challenges and concerns involved in making data move from the sites in which they are originally produced to sites where they can be integrated with other data, analysed and re-used for a variety of purposes. The in-depth study of data journeys provides the necessary ground to examine disciplinary, geographical and historical differences and similarities in data management, processing and interpretation, thus identifying the key conditions of possibility for the widespread data sharing associated with Big and Open Data. The chapters are ordered in sections that broadly correspond to different stages of the journeys of data, from their generation to the legitimisation of their use for specific purposes. Additionally, the preface to the volume provides a variety of alternative “roadmaps” aimed to serve the different interests and entry points of readers; and the introduction provides a substantive overview of what data journeys can teach about the methods and epistemology of research.

Social Mendelism

Social Mendelism PDF Author: Amir Teicher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110849949X
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 284

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Book Description
Will revolutionize reader's understanding of the principles of modern genetics, Nazi racial policies and the relationship between them.

A Human Garden

A Human Garden PDF Author: Paul-André Rosental
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1789205441
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 248

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Book Description
Well into the 1980s, Strasbourg, France, was the site of a curious and little-noted experiment: Ungemach, a garden city dating back to the high days of eugenic experimentation that offered luxury living to couples who were deemed biologically fit and committed to contractual childbearing targets. Supported by public authorities, Ungemach aimed to accelerate human evolution by increasing procreation among eugenically selected parents. In this fascinating history, Paul-André Rosental gives an account of Ungemach’s origins and its perplexing longevity. He casts a troubling light on the influence that eugenics continues to exert—even decades after being discredited as a pseudoscience—in realms as diverse as developmental psychology, postwar policymaking, and liberal-democratic ideals of personal fulfilment.

How Social Science Got Better

How Social Science Got Better PDF Author: Matt Grossmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0197518974
Category : SOCIAL SCIENCE
Languages : en
Pages : 328

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Book Description
In How Social Science Got Better, Matt Grossmann provides a robust defense of the current state of the social sciences. He focuses in particular on the salutary innovations in research methods and the broadening of subject matter that academics deem worthy of inquiry. He offers a wide-ranging account of current research trends that will necessarily force the academy's many critics to rethink their lazy critiques and instead acknowledge the path- breakingadvances in knowledge occurring in the social sciences today.

Between Sanity and Madness

Between Sanity and Madness PDF Author: Allan V. Horwitz
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019090786X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
"Between Sanity and Madness: Mental Illness from Homer to Neuroscience traces the extensive array of answers that various groups have provided to questions about the nature of mental illness and its boundaries with sanity. What distinguishes mental illnesses from other sorts of devalued conditions and from normality? Should medical, religious, psychological, legal, or no authority at all respond to the mentally ill? Why do some people become mad? What treatments might help them recover? Despite general agreement across societies regarding definitions about the pole of madness, huge disparities exist on where dividing lines should be placed between it and sanity and even if there is any clear demarcation at all. Various groups have provided answers to these puzzles that are both widely divergent and surprisingly similar to current understandings"--