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Rationalizing Chinese Hegemony

Rationalizing Chinese Hegemony PDF Author: Yu-Ping Chang
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
This dissertation examines the Chinese style of imperialism in the early 21st century through China's self-justifying rationalization and strategic thought. It develops a theory called Cultural Subjectivism to explore the PRC's preferred world order. Specifically, it analyzes the characteristics of Chinese subjectivity and how Beijing shapes the roles of the self and others through the othering and altercating processes in order to justify the country's overseas expansion. The international order that Beijing espouses reflects a realistic assessment of world politics. This realpolitik, however, is denied in the narratives for public consumption. Several idealistic principles that China claims are guiding its foreign policy (and devoid of strategic calculations) create a false impression that Beijing is an altruistic actor occupying the moral high ground. Anchoring Chinese behavior to the inherent benevolence of the PRC underpins an unfalsifiable self-justifying logic that, regardless of shifts in policies, Beijing's behavior is always defensive, peaceful, non-expansionist and non-hegemonic. In accord with Beijing's assessments of the post-Cold War peace, its narratives have grown more inclusive in that the opposing roles (the othering) between the self and others becomes less salient while the role congruence (the altercasting) that indicates shared interests gets more prevalent. This is tailored to meet China's strategic needs of the attainment of material strength and international status in the era of post-Cold War globalization through engagement with countries around the world. Paralleling the increasing usage of inclusive rhetoric to rationalize Beijing's overseas expansion is the growing discursive assertiveness of a China-espoused world order in which Chinese institutions and Chinese culture are said, due to their innate benevolence compared to hegemonic capitalism, to bring the world peace and prosperity. After all, the inclusive narratives and the role (re)construction spin around the concept of Chinese socialism, an embodiment of the PRC's self-centeredness, and how it is good for both domestic development and international community. Beijing's role construction operates within a quasi-world-like "Asia Pacific" that includes the Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Eurasian continent. Within this expansive geographical scope, China adopts the grand strategy of "winning without fighting" which consists of the strategies of "cooperation" and limited provocations. The purpose is to amass resources through the land to cope with the challenges from the sea. As the strategic logic of winning without fighting dictates, the PRC intends to achieve its political goals during peacetime while, through disarming enemies and strengthening itself in its overseas expansion, preparing for a possible future war if non-war solutions prove impossible for obtaining its goals. Accordingly, "active defense" needs to be understood as a strategic guideline that directs the generation of resources and abilities for both non-war and war solutions. From a Chinese perspective, regardless of the means adopted, China's behavior is always defensive and for the sake of peace wherever the activities occur. This unfalsifiable rationalization that relies on the benevolent nature of the self, rather than an admission of realistic calculations, to explain its own behavior functions on a global level and characterizes active defense. From the perspective of discursive rationalization, China exhibits the height of imperialism. Compared to Japan and the US, Beijing shows an unprecedented degree and scale in claiming itself moral in that it is altruistic and inclusive, while firmly believing in its own claims. It is the gulf between complicated realities and the extent of the PRC's willingness to systematically deny such or cover up what happens on the ground and a lower degree of transparency in its strategic calculations for self-interests that make Chinese imperialism different from others.

Rationalizing Chinese Hegemony

Rationalizing Chinese Hegemony PDF Author: Yu-Ping Chang
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
This dissertation examines the Chinese style of imperialism in the early 21st century through China's self-justifying rationalization and strategic thought. It develops a theory called Cultural Subjectivism to explore the PRC's preferred world order. Specifically, it analyzes the characteristics of Chinese subjectivity and how Beijing shapes the roles of the self and others through the othering and altercating processes in order to justify the country's overseas expansion. The international order that Beijing espouses reflects a realistic assessment of world politics. This realpolitik, however, is denied in the narratives for public consumption. Several idealistic principles that China claims are guiding its foreign policy (and devoid of strategic calculations) create a false impression that Beijing is an altruistic actor occupying the moral high ground. Anchoring Chinese behavior to the inherent benevolence of the PRC underpins an unfalsifiable self-justifying logic that, regardless of shifts in policies, Beijing's behavior is always defensive, peaceful, non-expansionist and non-hegemonic. In accord with Beijing's assessments of the post-Cold War peace, its narratives have grown more inclusive in that the opposing roles (the othering) between the self and others becomes less salient while the role congruence (the altercasting) that indicates shared interests gets more prevalent. This is tailored to meet China's strategic needs of the attainment of material strength and international status in the era of post-Cold War globalization through engagement with countries around the world. Paralleling the increasing usage of inclusive rhetoric to rationalize Beijing's overseas expansion is the growing discursive assertiveness of a China-espoused world order in which Chinese institutions and Chinese culture are said, due to their innate benevolence compared to hegemonic capitalism, to bring the world peace and prosperity. After all, the inclusive narratives and the role (re)construction spin around the concept of Chinese socialism, an embodiment of the PRC's self-centeredness, and how it is good for both domestic development and international community. Beijing's role construction operates within a quasi-world-like "Asia Pacific" that includes the Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Eurasian continent. Within this expansive geographical scope, China adopts the grand strategy of "winning without fighting" which consists of the strategies of "cooperation" and limited provocations. The purpose is to amass resources through the land to cope with the challenges from the sea. As the strategic logic of winning without fighting dictates, the PRC intends to achieve its political goals during peacetime while, through disarming enemies and strengthening itself in its overseas expansion, preparing for a possible future war if non-war solutions prove impossible for obtaining its goals. Accordingly, "active defense" needs to be understood as a strategic guideline that directs the generation of resources and abilities for both non-war and war solutions. From a Chinese perspective, regardless of the means adopted, China's behavior is always defensive and for the sake of peace wherever the activities occur. This unfalsifiable rationalization that relies on the benevolent nature of the self, rather than an admission of realistic calculations, to explain its own behavior functions on a global level and characterizes active defense. From the perspective of discursive rationalization, China exhibits the height of imperialism. Compared to Japan and the US, Beijing shows an unprecedented degree and scale in claiming itself moral in that it is altruistic and inclusive, while firmly believing in its own claims. It is the gulf between complicated realities and the extent of the PRC's willingness to systematically deny such or cover up what happens on the ground and a lower degree of transparency in its strategic calculations for self-interests that make Chinese imperialism different from others.

Diaspora and Trust

Diaspora and Trust PDF Author: Adrian H. Hearn
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822374587
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 280

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Book Description
In Diaspora and Trust Adrian H. Hearn proposes that a new paradigm of socio-economic development is gaining importance for Cuba and Mexico. Despite their contrasting political ideologies, both countries must build new forms of trust among the state, society, and resident Chinese diaspora communities if they are to harness the potentials of China’s rise. Combining political and economic analysis with ethnographic fieldwork, Hearn analyzes Cuba's and Mexico's historical relations with China, and highlights how Chinese diaspora communities are now deepening these ties. Theorizing trust as an alternative to existing models of exchange—which are failing to navigate the world's shifting economic currents—Hearn shows how Cuba and Mexico can reformulate the balance of power between state, market, and society. A new paradigm of domestic development and foreign engagement based on trust is becoming critical for Cuba, Mexico, and other countries seeking to benefit from China’s growing economic power and social influence.

When China Rules the World

When China Rules the World PDF Author: Martin Jacques
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101151455
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 848

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Book Description
Greatly revised and expanded, with a new afterword, this update to Martin Jacques’s global bestseller is an essential guide to understanding a world increasingly shaped by Chinese power Soon, China will rule the world. But in doing so, it will not become more Western. Since the first publication of When China Rules the World, the landscape of world power has shifted dramatically. In the three years since the first edition was published, When China Rules the World has proved to be a remarkably prescient book, transforming the nature of the debate on China. Now, in this greatly expanded and fully updated edition, boasting nearly 300 pages of new material, and backed up by the latest statistical data, Martin Jacques renews his assault on conventional thinking about China’s ascendancy, showing how its impact will be as much political and cultural as economic, changing the world as we know it. First published in 2009 to widespread critical acclaim - and controversy - When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order has sold a quarter of a million copies, been translated into eleven languages, nominated for two major literary awards, and is the subject of an immensely popular TED talk.

Old Nations, New World

Old Nations, New World PDF Author: David Jacobson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000302024
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 235

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Book Description
This volume explores key states and their changing conceptions of the international order in the post-Cold War era. Taken collectively, the contributors' analyses of the United States, the Soviet Union and its successor states, Japan, the People's Republic of China, the East Asian Little Dragons and Germany and the European Community paint a detailed portrait of the emerging world order. This multidisciplinary group of contributors utilizes a diversity of theoretical and methodological approaches to confront common themes and questions: How do states reorganize the world by creating idioms and conceptions of international order? What is the state's definition of its own role and the role of others? How has the state's idiom and conception of the international order shifted from the recent past? What role does the past play in approaches to the world order–in terms of historical traditions, fears, and memories? These questions are illuminated by considering such crucial issues as the state's approach to international or supranational institutions and legal codes, particularly in the area of economy and international human rights, and the role of the state vis-à-vis other states: Does the state have hegemonic tendencies and an active role in maintaining international stability? Does it stress independence or interdependence? Isolationism or internationalism? These original essays suggest the nascent form the international order is taking in an otherwise turbulent world. Understanding how states view the post-Cold War arena is of paramount importance for comprehending the development of the new world order. In addressing these issues, this volume not only provides concrete, timely answers but offers a variety of theoretical and methodological tools for scholars, policymakers, and the informed public.

China: Rationalizing the Demonic

China: Rationalizing the Demonic PDF Author: Jay Howard Ginsburg
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : China
Languages : en
Pages : 153

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Book Description


China's Global Identity

China's Global Identity PDF Author: Hoo Tiang Boon
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626166153
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 197

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Book Description
China is today regarded as a major player in world politics, with growing expectations for it to do more to address global challenges. Yet relatively little is known about how it sees itself as a great power and understands its obligations to the world. In China’s Global Identity, Hoo Tiang Boon embarks on the first sustained study of China’s great power identity. Focus is drawn to China’s positioning of itself as a responsible power and the underestimated role played by the United States in shaping this face. In 1995 President Bill Clinton notably called for China to become a responsible great power, one that integrates itself into existing international institutions and becomes a leader in solving global problems. Chinese leaders were at that time already debating their future course and obligations to the world. Hoo examines this ongoing internal debate through Chinese sources and reveals the underestimated role that the United States has in this dialogue. Unraveling the big power politics, history, events, and ideas behind the emergence and evolution of China’s great power identity, the book provides fresh insights into the real-world issues of how China might use its power as it grows. The question of China’s role as a responsible power has real-world implications for its diplomacy and trajectory, as well as the responses of states adjusting to these shifts. The book offers a new lens for scholars, policy professionals, diplomats, and students in the fields of international relations and Asian affairs to make sense of China’s rise and its impact on America and global order.

The Morality of China in Africa

The Morality of China in Africa PDF Author: Professor Stephen Chan
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1780325681
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 168

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Book Description
Edited with authority by the influential and respected Stephen Chan, this unique collection of essays gathers together for the first time both African and Chinese perspectives on China's place in Africa. The book starts with an excellent introductory essay from Stephen Chan, written in his usual elegant prose and featuring some very fresh insights organised with great clarity. Featuring useful historical context, this brave book analyses the "moral" aspects of the policies and ensuing migration. The book completely undermines existing assumptions concerning Sino-African relations, such as that Africa is of critical importance for China; that China sees no risk in its largesse towards Africa; and that there is a single Chinese profile/agenda. The resulting collection touches the issue of racism but is equally about moments of pure idealism and 'romance' in Sino-African history.

Chinese Naval Strategy in the 21st Century

Chinese Naval Strategy in the 21st Century PDF Author: James R. Holmes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135981760
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description
Alfred Thayer Mahan has been called America’s nineteenth-century ‘evangelist of sea power’ and the intellectual father of the modern US Navy. His theories have a timeless appeal, and Chinese analysts now routinely invoke Mahan’s writings, exhorting their nation to build a powerful navy. Economics is the prime motivation for maritime reorientation, and securing the sea lanes that convey foreign energy supplies and other commodities now ranks near or at the top of China’s list of military priorities. This book is the first systematic effort to test the interplay between Western military thought and Chinese strategic traditions vis-à-vis the nautical arena. It uncovers some universal axioms about how theories of sea power influence the behaviour of great powers and examines how Mahanian thought could shape China’s encounters on the high seas. Empirical analysis adds a new dimension to the current debate over China’s ‘rise’ and its importance for international relations. The findings also clarify the possible implications of China’s maritime rise for the United States, and illuminate how the two powers can manage their bilateral interactions on the high seas. Chinese Naval Strategy in the 21st Century will be of much interest to students of naval history, Chinese politics and security studies.

China in and Out of the Changing World Order

China in and Out of the Changing World Order PDF Author: Samuel S. Kim
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : China
Languages : en
Pages : 85

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Book Description


Forces for Change in Contemporary China

Forces for Change in Contemporary China PDF Author: Bih-jaw Lin
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : China
Languages : en
Pages : 387

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Book Description