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Robin CooperAuthor: Robin Cooper Publisher: Center for the Study of Language (CSLI) ISBN: 9781881526087 Category : Computers Languages : en Pages : 436

Book Description
Situation theory is the result of an interdisciplinary effort to create a full-fledged theory of information. Created by scholars and scientists from cognitive science, computer science and AI, linguistics, logic, philosophy, and mathematics, it aims to provide a common set of tools for the analysis of phenomena from all these fields. Unlike Shannon-Weaver type theories of information, which are purely quantitative theories, situation theory aims at providing tools for the analysis of the specific content of a situation (signal, message, data base, statement, or other information-carrying situation). The question addressed is not how much information is carried, but what information is carried.

Book Description
Situation theory is the result of an interdisciplinary effort to create a full-fledged theory of information. Created by scholars and scientists from cognitive science, computer science and AI, linguistics, logic, philosophy, and mathematics, it aims to provide a common set of tools for the analysis of phenomena from all these fields. Unlike Shannon-Weaver type theories of information, which are purely quantitative theories, situation theory aims at providing tools for the analysis of the specific content of a situation (signal, message, data base, statement, or other information-carrying situation). The question addressed is not how much information is carried, but what information is carried.

Book Description
Situation Theory grew out of attempts by Jon Barwise in the late 1970s to provide a semantics for 'naked-infinitive' perceptual reports such as 'Claire saw Jon run'. Barwise's intuition was that Claire didn't just see Jon, an individual, but Jon doing something, a situation. Situations are individuals having properties and standing in relations. A theory of situations would allow us to study and compare various types of situations or situation-like entitles, such as facts, events, and scenes. One of the central themes of situation theory of meaning and reference should be set within a general theory of information, one moreover that is rich enough to do justice to perception, communication, and thought. By now many people have contributed by the need to give a rigorous mathematical account of the principles of information that underwrite the theory.

Book Description
Situation theory is the result of an interdisciplinary effort to create a full-fledged theory of information. Created by scholars and scientists from cognitive science, computer science, AI, linguistics, logic, philosophy, and mathematics, the theory is forging a common set of tools for the analysis of phenomena from all these fields. This volume presents work that evolved out of the Second Conference on Situation Theory and its Applications. Twenty-six essays exhibit the wide range of the theory, covering such topics as natural language semantics, philosophical issues about information, mathematical applications, and the visual representation of information in computer systems.Jon Barwise is a professor of philosophy, mathematics, and logic at Indiana University in Bloomington. Jean Mark Gawron is a researcher at SRI International and a consultant at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. Gordon Plotkin is a professor of theoretical computer science at the University of Edinburgh. Syun Tutiya is in the philosophy department at Chiba University in Japan.

Book Description
The classic text for understanding complex statistical probability An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications offers comprehensive explanations to complex statistical problems. Delving deep into densities and distributions while relating critical formulas, processes and approaches, this rigorous text provides a solid grounding in probability with practice problems throughout. Heavy on application without sacrificing theory, the discussion takes the time to explain difficult topics and how to use them. This new second edition includes new material related to the substitution of probabilistic arguments for combinatorial artifices as well as new sections on branching processes, Markov chains, and the DeMoivre-Laplace theorem.

Book Description
Intelligence can be characterised both as the ability to absorb and process information and as the ability to reason. Humans and other animals have both of these abilities to a greater or lesser degree, but the search for artificial intelligence has been hampered by our inability to create a theory that covers both of these characteristics. In this provocative and ground-breaking book, Professor Keith Devlin argues that to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of intelligence and knowledge acquisition, we must broaden our concept of logic. For these purposes, Devlin introduces the concept of the infon, a quantum of information, and merges it with situations, a mathematical construction generalising the notion of sets developed by Barwise and Perry at Stanford University in order to study the meaning of natural languages. He develops and describes the theory here in general and intuitive terms, and discusses its relevance to a variety of concerns such as artificial intelligence, cognition, natural language and communication.

Book Description
The series Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science is designed to illuminate a field which not only includes general linguistics and the study of linguistics as applied to specific languages, but also covers those more recent areas which have developed from the increasing body of research into the manifold forms of communicative action and interaction.

Book Description
In recent years, there have been several attempts to define a logic for information retrieval (IR). The aim was to provide a rich and uniform representation of information and its semantics with the goal of improving retrieval effectiveness. The basis of a logical model for IR is the assumption that queries and documents can be represented effectively by logical formulae. To retrieve a document, an IR system has to infer the formula representing the query from the formula representing the document. This logical interpretation of query and document emphasizes that relevance in IR is an inference process. The use of logic to build IR models enables one to obtain models that are more general than earlier well-known IR models. Indeed, some logical models are able to represent within a uniform framework various features of IR systems such as hypermedia links, multimedia data, and user's knowledge. Logic also provides a common approach to the integration of IR systems with logical database systems. Finally, logic makes it possible to reason about an IR model and its properties. This latter possibility is becoming increasingly more important since conventional evaluation methods, although good indicators of the effectiveness of IR systems, often give results which cannot be predicted, or for that matter satisfactorily explained. However, logic by itself cannot fully model IR. The success or the failure of the inference of the query formula from the document formula is not enough to model relevance in IR. It is necessary to take into account the uncertainty inherent in such an inference process. In 1986, Van Rijsbergen proposed the uncertainty logical principle to model relevance as an uncertain inference process. When proposing the principle, Van Rijsbergen was not specific about which logic and which uncertainty theory to use. As a consequence, various logics and uncertainty theories have been proposed and investigated. The choice of an appropriate logic and uncertainty mechanism has been a main research theme in logical IR modeling leading to a number of logical IR models over the years. Information Retrieval: Uncertainty and Logics contains a collection of exciting papers proposing, developing and implementing logical IR models. This book is appropriate for use as a text for a graduate-level course on Information Retrieval or Database Systems, and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.

Book Description
This collection of papers is written in the spirit of what is nowadays called 'Logical Philosophy.' The topics addressed include: skepticism and the criterion of truth, situational semantics, computational aspects of possible worlds semantics and question-answer systems, occurrent beliefs, the logical omniscience paradox, paraconsistency, and models of explanatory procedures. (Series: Development in Humanities - Vol. 12)

Book Description
This is a monograph about logic. Specifically, it presents the mathe matical theory of the logic of bunched implications, BI: I consider Bl's proof theory, model theory and computation theory. However, the mono graph is also about informatics in a sense which I explain. Specifically, it is about mathematical models of resources and logics for reasoning about resources. I begin with an introduction which presents my (background) view of logic from the point of view of informatics, paying particular attention to three logical topics which have arisen from the development of logic within informatics: • Resources as a basis for semantics; • Proof-search as a basis for reasoning; and • The theory of representation of object-logics in a meta-logic. The ensuing development represents a logical theory which draws upon the mathematical, philosophical and computational aspects of logic. Part I presents the logical theory of propositional BI, together with a computational interpretation. Part II presents a corresponding devel opment for predicate BI. In both parts, I develop proof-, model- and type-theoretic analyses. I also provide semantically-motivated compu tational perspectives, so beginning a mathematical theory of resources. I have not included any analysis, beyond conjecture, of properties such as decidability, finite models, games or complexity. I prefer to leave these matters to other occasions, perhaps in broader contexts.

Book Description
The present volume contains some selected topics of current interest around the world in the mathematical analysis of natural language. The book is divided into four sections: - analytical algebraic models - models from the theory of formal grammars and automata, with interest mainly in syntax - model-theoretic concepts in semantics or pragmatics, and - a final section containing some applications in computational linguistics. The varied perspectives illustrated in the book confirm that Mathematical Linguistics has finally introduced scientific methods into a previously fuzzy field, through the use of mathematical reasoning. The text will contribute to a fruitful convergence between linguists, mathematicians, logicians, computer scientists, cognitive scientists and others interested in the formal treatment of natural language and the research of its properties.