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The Bilingual Advantage

The Bilingual Advantage PDF Author: Diane Rodriguez
Publisher: Teachers College Press
ISBN: 0807755109
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 161

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Book Description
This comprehensive account of bilingualism examines the importance of using students' native languages as a tool for supporting higher levels of learning. The authors highlight the social, linguistic, neuro-cognitive, and academic advantages of bilingualism, as well as the challenges faced by English language learners and their teachers in schools across the United States. They describe effective strategies for using native languages, even when the teacher lacks proficiency in that language. This resource addresses both the latest research and theory on native language instruction, along with its practical application (the what, the why, and how) in K-8 classrooms.

The Bilingual Advantage

The Bilingual Advantage PDF Author: Diane Rodriguez
Publisher: Teachers College Press
ISBN: 0807755109
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 161

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Book Description
This comprehensive account of bilingualism examines the importance of using students' native languages as a tool for supporting higher levels of learning. The authors highlight the social, linguistic, neuro-cognitive, and academic advantages of bilingualism, as well as the challenges faced by English language learners and their teachers in schools across the United States. They describe effective strategies for using native languages, even when the teacher lacks proficiency in that language. This resource addresses both the latest research and theory on native language instruction, along with its practical application (the what, the why, and how) in K-8 classrooms.

The Bilingual Advantage

The Bilingual Advantage PDF Author: Rebecca M. Callahan
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1783092424
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 280

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Book Description
Using novel methodological approaches and new data, The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist.

Perspectives on the ‘Bilingual Advantage’: Challenges and Opportunities

Perspectives on the ‘Bilingual Advantage’: Challenges and Opportunities PDF Author: Peter Bright
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288963017X
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 202

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Book Description
The claim that multilanguage acquisition drives advantages in ‘executive function’ is currently an issue of vigorous debate in academic literature. Critics argue that evidence for this advantage has been confounded by unsound or questionable methodological practices, with some investigators abandoning research in this area altogether, indicating either that there is no bilingual advantage or that it is impossible to capture and therefore rule out alternative explanations for group differences. Over the past decade, and against this backdrop, theory has developed from a relatively narrow focus on inhibitory control to incorporate theory of mind, rule-based learning, reactive and proactive control, visuo-spatial memory, and control of verbal interference in speech comprehension. Most recently, authors have claimed that the process of becoming bilingual may also impact on metacognitive abilities. The fundamental issue is whether the limited capacity and goal-directed selectivity of our executive system can somehow be enhanced or otherwise profit from the continuous, intense competition associated with communicating in multilingual environments. However, although this issue has received much attention in academic literature, the question of which cognitive mechanisms are most influenced by the enhanced competition associated with multilingual contexts remains unresolved. Therefore, rather than dismissing this important topic, we advocate a more systematic approach in which the effects of multilinguistic experience are assessed and interpreted across well-defined stages of cognitive development. We encourage a broad, developmentally informed approach to plotting the trajectory of interactions between multi-language learning and cognitive development, using a convergence of neuroimaging and behavioral methods, across the whole lifespan. Moreover, we suggest that the current theoretical framing of the bilingual advantage is simplistic, and this issue may limit attempts to identify specific mechanisms most likely to be modulated by multilingual experience. For example, there is a tendency in academic literature to treat ‘executive function’ as an essentially unitary fronto-parietal system recruited in response to all manner of cognitive demand, yet performance across so called ‘executive function’ tasks is highly variable and intercorrelations are sometimes low. It may be the case that some ‘higher level’ mechanisms of 'executive function' remain relatively unaffected, while others are more sensitive to multilingual experience – and that there may be disadvantages as well as advantages, which themselves may be sensitive to factors such as age. In our view, there is an urgent need to take a more fine-grained approach to this issue, so that the strength and direction of changes in diverse cognitive abilities associated with multilanguage acquisition can be better understood. This book compiles work from psychologists and neuroscientists who actively research whether, how, and the extent to which multilanguage acquisition promotes enhanced cognition or protects against age-related cognitive or neurological deterioration. We hope this collection encourages future efforts to drive theoretical progress well beyond the highly simplistic issue of whether the bilingual cognitive advantage is real or spurious.

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve PDF Author: Maurits Van den Noort
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3039281046
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 264

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Book Description
The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?

The Bilingual Advantage Debate

The Bilingual Advantage Debate PDF Author: Anabel Castillo
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description
There is a long-standing debate about whether bilinguals have enhanced executive function abilities due to regularly managing two languages and thus constantly activating brain regions responsible for executive control. This dissertation presents four studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on executive function abilities. Chapter 1 provides an argument towards an integration of hotter executive function measures regarding the bilingual advantage debate. Chapter 2 used secondary data to analyze the development of bilingual children's executive function overtime in a longitudinal study across several time points from ages five to seven. Findings indicate that bilingual and monolingual children are different in some ways, such as their rate of change on cognitive control. Additionally, teachers rated bilingual children as having better inhibitory control and attention skills at the start of kindergarten in comparison to monolingual children, which may be reflective of hot executive function skills. Chapter 3 expands upon the results of Chapter 2 by examining how the teachers rated eight-year-old children's hot executive function skills, internalizing and externalizing problems and interpersonal skills. The results paralleled those found in Chapter 2. Next, Chapter 4 follows up and expands the prior studies through investigating hot executive function skills among bilingual undergraduates via a computerized executive function task that implements affective stimuli. Chapter 5 examines whether bilingual and monolingual children differ on hot and cool executive function tasks that differ on their interpersonal level (2 tasks that are interpersonal and 2 tasks that are intrapersonal) and furthermore how these tasks relate to a novel ecological hot executive function task. Our novel child friendly computerized executive function task with affective stimuli directly contrasts neutral stimuli of a pre-existing executive function task. Additionally, Chapter 5 includes extensive information regarding the child's background, language experience and exposure. This collection of studies aims to provide evidence for how bilingualism relates to executive function using a holistic multimethod approach including, a longitudinal design, non-affective and affective executive function tasks, teacher reports and parent reports. Theoretical and methodological implications, as well as limitations of the studies in this dissertation are discussed.

The Bilingual Advantage on Recollection and Familiarity

The Bilingual Advantage on Recollection and Familiarity PDF Author: Nikita Adhikari
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Bilingualism
Languages : en
Pages : 70

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Book Description
Extensive evidence has shown that individuals who speak two languages have advantages in cognitive functions such as attention, inhibition, multi-tasking, and memory, compared those who only speak one language. This finding is known as the bilingual advantage (BA) hypothesis. This advantage has been most evident in difficult nonverbal tasks, such as the Simon task, the Stroop task, and the Flanker task. However, the BA hypothesis has also been met with criticism, with some researchers stating that cognitive differences between bilinguals and monolinguals do not exist. The current study examined the performance of 68 college students, 39 monolingual and 29 bilingual, on a variant of the process dissociation procedure (PDP) to measure recognition of colorful, abstract fractal images. The variant of the PDP utilized two lists of images presented to the participants during the study phase, followed by a testing phase for studied and new images, to compare values for test item status (inclusion, exclusion, and false alarm rates). The present study also made comparisons between values for familiarity (F) and recognition (R) using formulas devised by Jacoby (1991). I predicted that bilinguals would exhibit their best performance in the difficult condition and have higher inclusion rates, along with lower exclusion rates, than monolinguals. I also predicted that bilinguals would have higher recollection values than monolinguals in the difficult condition. Significant differences were found between the inclusion, exclusion, and false alarm rates. The easy condition also had significantly higher familiarity values than the hard condition. However, my hypotheses were unsupported, and no significant differences were found for test item status or recollection between bilinguals and monolinguals.

The Bilingual Brain

The Bilingual Brain PDF Author: Arturo E. Hernandez
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199828113
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 193

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Book Description
Arturo Hernandez presents the results of 25 years of research into the factors that might help us to understand how two (or more) languages are stored in one brain. It is clear that the brain is not egalitarian—some languages are privileged and others are not, but why?

Bilingualism in Development

Bilingualism in Development PDF Author: Ellen Bialystok
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521635073
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
Describes how intellectual development of bilingual children differs from that of monolingual children.

Phonology in the Bilingual and Bidialectal Lexicon

Phonology in the Bilingual and Bidialectal Lexicon PDF Author: Isabelle Darcy
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452107
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
A conversation between two people can only take place if the words intended by each speaker are successfully recognized. Spoken word recognition is at the heart of language comprehension. This automatic and smooth process remains a challenge for models of spoken word recognition. Both the process of mapping the speech signal onto stored representations for words, and the format of the representation themselves are subject to debate. So far, existing research on the nature of spoken word representations has focused mainly on native speakers. The picture becomes even more complex when looking at spoken word recognition in a second language. Given that most of the world’s speakers know and use more than one language, it is crucial to reach a more precise understanding of how bilingual and multilingual individuals encode spoken words in the mental lexicon, and why spoken word recognition is more difficult in a second language than in the native language. Current models of native spoken word recognition operate under two assumptions: (i) that listeners’ perception of the incoming speech signal is optimal; and (ii) that listeners’ lexical representations are accurate. As a result, lexical representations are easily activated, and intended words are successfully recognized. However, these assumptions are compromised when applied to a later-learned second language. For a variety of reasons (e.g., phonetic/phonological, orthographic), second language users may not perceive the speech signal optimally, and they may still be refining the motor routines needed for articulation. Accordingly, their lexical representations may differ from those of native speakers, which may in turn inhibit their selection of the intended word forms. Second language users also have to solve a larger selection challenge—having words in more than one language to choose from. Thus, for second language users, the links between perception, lexical representations, orthography, and production are all but clear. Even for simultaneous bilinguals, important questions remain about the specificity and interdependence of their lexical representations and the factors influencing cross-language word activation. This Frontiers Research Topic seeks to further our understanding of the factors that determine how multilinguals recognize and encode spoken words in the mental lexicon, with a focus on the mapping between the input and lexical representations, and on the quality of lexical representations.

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve PDF Author: Maurits Van den Noort
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783039281053
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 264

View

Book Description
The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?