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The Mind of the Mathematician

The Mind of the Mathematician PDF Author: Michael Fitzgerald
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801885876
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 181

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The Mind of the Mathematician

The Mind of the Mathematician PDF Author: Michael Fitzgerald
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801885876
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 181

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Book Description
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Mathematics and Mind

Mathematics and Mind PDF Author: Alexander George
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195079299
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 204

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Book Description
The essays in this volume investigate the conceptual foundations of mathematics illuminating the powers of the mind. Contributors include Alexander George, Michael Dummett, George Boolos, W.W. Tait, Wilfried Sieg, Daniel Isaacson, Charles Parsons, and Michael Hallett.

The Number Sense : How the Mind Creates Mathematics

The Number Sense : How the Mind Creates Mathematics PDF Author: Stanislas Dehaene Research Affiliate Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199723095
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
Our understanding of how the human brain performs mathematical calculations is far from complete. But in recent years there have been many exciting scientific discoveries, some aided by new imaging techniques--which allow us for the first time to watch the living mind at work--and others by ingenious experiments conducted by researchers all over the world. There are still perplexing mysteries--how, for instance, do idiot savants perform almost miraculous mathematical feats?--but the picture is growing steadily clearer. In The Number Sense, Stanislas Dehaene offers general readers a first look at these recent stunning discoveries, in an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Dehaene, a mathematician turned cognitive neuropsychologist, begins with the eye-opening discovery that animals--including rats, pigeons, raccoons, and chimpanzees--can perform simple mathematical calculations, and he describes ingenious experiments that show that human infants also have a rudimentary number sense (American scientist Karen Wynn, for instance, using just a few Mickey Mouse toys and a small puppet theater, proved that five-month-old infants already have the ability to add and subtract). Further, Dehaene suggests that this rudimentary number sense is as basic to the way the brain understands the world as our perception of color or of objects in space, and, like these other abilities, our number sense is wired into the brain. But how then did the brain leap from this basic number ability to trigonometry, calculus, and beyond? Dehaene shows that it was the invention of symbolic systems of numerals that started us on the climb to higher mathematics, and in a marvelous chapter he traces the history of numbers, from early times when people indicated a number by pointing to a part of their body (even today, in many societies in New Guinea, the word for six is "wrist"), to early abstract numbers such as Roman numerals (chosen for the ease with which they could be carved into wooden sticks), to modern numbers. On our way, we also discover many fascinating facts: for example, because Chinese names for numbers are so short, Chinese people can remember up to nine or ten digits at a time--English-speaking people can only remember seven. Dehaene also explores the unique abilities of idiot savants and mathematical geniuses, asking what might explain their special mathematical talent. And we meet people whose minute brain lesions render their mathematical ability useless--one man, in fact, who is certain that two and two is three. Using modern imaging techniques (PET scans and MRI), Dehaene reveals exactly where in the brain numerical calculation takes place. But perhaps most important, The Number Sense reaches many provocative conclusions that will intrigue anyone interested in mathematics or the mind. Dehaene argues, for instance, that many of the difficulties that children face when learning math, and which may turn into a full-blown adult "innumeracy," stem from the architecture of our primate brain, which has not evolved for the purpose of doing mathematics. He also shows why the human brain does not work like a computer, and that the physical world is not based on mathematics--rather, mathematics evolved to explain the physical world the way that the eye evolved to provide sight. A truly fascinating look at the crossroads where numbers and neurons intersect, The Number Sense offers an intriguing tour of how the structure of the brain shapes our mathematical abilities, and how our mathematics opens up a window on the human mind.

The Mathematician's Mind

The Mathematician's Mind PDF Author: Jacques Hadamard
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691029313
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 143

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Book Description
Fifty years ago when Jacques Hadamard set out to explore how mathematicians invent new ideas, he considered the creative experiences of some of the greatest thinkers of his generation, such as George Polya, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Albert Einstein. It appeared that inspiration could strike anytime, particularly after an individual had worked hard on a problem for days and then turned attention to another activity. In exploring this phenomenon, Hadamard produced one of the most famous and cogent cases for the existence of unconscious mental processes in mathematical invention and other forms of creativity. Written before the explosion of research in computers and cognitive science, his book, originally titled The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, remains an important tool for exploring the increasingly complex problem of mental life. The roots of creativity for Hadamard lie not in consciousness, but in the long unconscious work of incubation, and in the unconscious aesthetic selection of ideas that thereby pass into consciousness. His discussion of this process comprises a wide range of topics, including the use of mental images or symbols, visualized or auditory words, "meaningless" words, logic, and intuition. Among the important documents collected is a letter from Albert Einstein analyzing his own mechanism of thought.

Deep Thinking

Deep Thinking PDF Author: William Byers
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814618055
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 264

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Book Description
There is more than one way to think. Most people are familiar with the systematic, rule-based thinking that one finds in a mathematical proof or a computer program. But such thinking does not produce breakthroughs in mathematics and science nor is it the kind of thinking that results in significant learning. Deep thinking is a different and more basic way of using the mind. It results in the discontinuous “aha!” experience, which is the essence of creativity. It is at the heart of every paradigm shift or reframing of a problematic situation. The identification of deep thinking as the default state of the mind has the potential to reframe our current approach to technological change, education, and the nature of mathematics and science. For example, there is an unbridgeable gap between deep thinking and computer simulations of thinking. Many people suspect that such a gap exists, but find it difficult to make this intuition precise. This book identifies the way in which the authentic intelligence of deep thinking differs from the artificial intelligence of “big data” and “analytics”. Deep thinking is the essential ingredient in every significant learning experience, which leads to a new way to think about education. It is also essential to the construction of conceptual systems that are at the heart of mathematics and science, and of the technologies that shape the modern world. Deep thinking can be found whenever one conceptual system morphs into another. The sources of this study include the cognitive development of numbers in children, neuropsychology, the study of creativity, and the historical development of mathematics and science. The approach is unusual and original. It comes out of the author's lengthy experience as a mathematician, teacher, and writer of books about mathematics and science, such as How Mathematicians Think: Using Ambiguity, Contradiction, and Paradox to Create Mathematics and The Blind Spot: Science and the Crisis of Uncertainty. Contents:What is Deep Thinking?Conceptual SystemsDeep Thinking in Mathematics and ScienceDeep Thinking in the Mind and the BrainDeep Thinking and CreativityDeep LearningGood TeachingUndergraduate MathematicsWhat the Mind Can Teach Us About MathematicsWhat Mathematics Can Teach Us About the MindReferences Readership: Students, graduate students and researchers with an interest in mathematics, mathematicians, scientists, philosophers, psychologists, and readers who use mathematics in their work. Key Features:In this book, the author, a mathematician, demonstrates the specific difference between creative mathematical thought and the analytic thought of logic and the artificial intelligence of computersThis book shows why learning is a creative activity and demonstrates how teaching and learning must undergo radical changes in this age of rapid technological changeMathematics is a model for how people think and it reveals the essence of intelligenceThe author, a mathematician, demonstrates that creativity is a basic feature of the world. The same phenomenon of creative intelligence underlies the theory of evolution, child development, learning, and scientific and mathematical research. Creativity is so natural that even babies are capable of it but so difficult that adults have great trouble with it. This book explains the reasons behind this apparent paradoxKeywords:Mathematics;Cognitive Development;Thinking;Education;Mathematics Education;Conceptual Systems

The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics

The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics PDF Author: Stanislas Dehaene
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199881057
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
The Number Sense is an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Describing experiments that show that human infants have a rudimentary number sense, Stanislas Dehaene suggests that this sense is as basic as our perception of color, and that it is wired into the brain. Dehaene shows that it was the invention of symbolic systems of numerals that started us on the climb to higher mathematics. A fascinating look at the crossroads where numbers and neurons intersect, The Number Sense offers an intriguing tour of how the structure of the brain shapes our mathematical abilities, and how our mathematics opens up a window on the human mind.

Mathematics and the Mind

Mathematics and the Mind PDF Author: Hassan Tahiri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319252380
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 76

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Book Description
This book examines how epistemology was reinvented by Ibn Sīnā, an influential philosopher-scientist of the classical Islamic world who was known to the West by the Latinised name Avicenna. It explains his theory of knowledge in which intentionality acts as an interaction between the mind and the world. This, in turn, led Ibn Sīnā to distinguish an operation of intentionality specific to the generation of numbers. The author argues that Ibn Sīnā’s transformation of philosophy is one of the major stages in the de-hellinisation movement of the Greek heritage that was set off by the advent of the Arabic-Islamic civilisation. Readers first learn about Ibn Sīnā’s unprecedented investigation into the concept of the number and his criticism of such Greek thought as Plato’s realism, Pythagoreans’ empiricism, and Ari stotle’s conception of existence. Next, coverage sets out the basics of Ibn Sīnā’s theory of knowledge needed for the construction of numbers. It describes how intentionality turns out to be key in showing the ontological dependence of numbers as well as even more critical to their construction. In describing the various mental operations that make mathematical objects intentional entities, Ibn Sīnā developed powerful arguments and subtle analyses to show us the extent our mental life depends on intentionality. This monograph thoroughly explores the epistemic dimension of this concept, which, the author believes, can also explain the actual genesis and evolution of mathematics by the human mind.

The Number Sense

The Number Sense PDF Author: Stanislas Dehaene
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199753873
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 316

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Book Description
"Our understanding of how the human brain performs mathematical calculations is far from complete. In The Number Sense, Stanislas Dehaene offers readers an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Using research showing that human infants have a rudimentary number sense, Dehaene suggests that this sense is as basic as our perception of color, and that it is wired into the brain. But how then did we leap from this basic number ability to trigonometry, calculus, and beyond? Dehaene shows that it was the invention of symbolic systems of numerals that started us on the climb to higher mathematics. Tracing the history of numbers, we learn that in early times, people indicated numbers by pointing to part of their bodies, and how Roman numerals were replaced by modern numbers. On the way, we also discover many fascinating facts: for example, because Chinese names for numbers are short, Chinese people can remember up to nine or ten digits at a time, while English-speaking people can only remember seven. A fascinating look at the crossroads where numbers and neurons intersect, The Number Sense offers an intriguing tour of how the structure of the brain shapes our mathematical abilities, and how math can open up a window on the human mind"--Provided by publisher.

Adventures of Mind and Mathematics

Adventures of Mind and Mathematics PDF Author: Wolff-Michael Roth
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030518094
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 260

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Book Description
This monograph uses the concept and category of “event” in the study of mathematics as it emerges from an interaction between levels of cognition, from the bodily experiences to symbolism. It is subdivided into three parts.The first moves from a general characterization of the classical approach to mathematical cognition and mind toward laying the foundations for a view on the mathematical mind that differs from going approaches in placing primacy on events.The second articulates some common phenomena–mathematical thought, mathematical sign, mathematical form, mathematical reason and its development, and affect in mathematics–in new ways that are based on the previously developed ontology of events. The final part has more encompassing phenomena as its content, most prominently the thinking body of mathematics, the experience in and of mathematics, and the relationship between experience and mind. The volume is well-suited for anyone with a broad interest in educational theory and/or social development, or with a broad background in psychology.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Mathematical Education

Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Mathematical Education PDF Author: M. Zweng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468482238
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 725

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Book Description
Henry O. Pollak Chairman of the International Program Committee Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA The Fourth International Congress on Mathematics Education was held in Berkeley, California, USA, August 10-16, 1980. Previous Congresses were held in Lyons in 1969, Exeter in 1972, and Karlsruhe in 1976. Attendance at Berkeley was about 1800 full and 500 associate members from about 90 countries; at least half of these come from outside of North America. About 450 persons participated in the program either as speakers or as presiders; approximately 40 percent of these came from the U.S. or Canada. There were four plenary addresses; they were delivered by Hans Freudenthal on major problems of mathematics education, Hermina Sinclair on the relationship between the learning of language and of mathematics, Seymour Papert on the computer as carrier of mathematical culture, and Hua Loo-Keng on popularising and applying mathematical methods. Gearge Polya was the honorary president of the Congress; illness prevented his planned attendence but he sent a brief presentation entitled, "Mathematics Improves the Mind". There was a full program of speakers, panelists, debates, miniconferences, and meetings of working and study groups. In addition, 18 major projects from around the world were invited to make presentations, and various groups representing special areas of concern had the opportunity to meet and to plan their future activities.