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Variation, Selection, Development

Variation, Selection, Development PDF Author: Regine Eckardt
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110205394
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 416

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Book Description
Can language change be modelled as an evolutionary process? Can notions like variation, selection and competition be fruitfully applied to facts of language development? The present volume ties together various strands of linguistic research which can bring us towards an answer to these questions. In one of the youngest and rapidly growing areas of linguistic research, mathematical models and simulations of competition based developments have been applied to instances of language change. By matching the predicted and observed developmental trends, researchers gauge existing models to the needs of linguistic applications and evaluate the fruitfulness of evolutionary models in linguistics. The present volume confronts these studies with more empirically-based studies in creolization and historical language change which bear on key concepts of evolutionary models. What does it mean for a linguistic construction to survive its competitors? How do the interacting factors in phases of creolization differ from those in ordinary language change, and how - consequently - might Creole languages differ structurally from older languages? Some of the authors, finally, also address the question how different aspects of our linguistic competence tie in with our more elementary cognitive capacities. The volume contains contributions by Brady Clark et al., Elly van Gelderen, Alain Kihm, Manfred Krifka, Wouter Kusters, Robert van Rooij, Anette Rosenbach, John McWhorter, Teresa Satterfield, Michael Tomasello and Elizabeth C. Traugott. The book brings together contributions from two areas of research: the study of language evolution by means of methods from artifical intelligence/artificial life (like computer simulations and analytic mathematical methods) on the one hand, and empirically oriented research from historical linguistics and creolisation studies that uses concepts from evolutionary theory as a heuristic tool in a qualitative way. The book is thus interesting for readers from both traditions because it supplies them with information about relevant ongoing research and useful methods and data from the other camp.

Variation, Selection, Development

Variation, Selection, Development PDF Author: Regine Eckardt
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110205394
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 416

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Book Description
Can language change be modelled as an evolutionary process? Can notions like variation, selection and competition be fruitfully applied to facts of language development? The present volume ties together various strands of linguistic research which can bring us towards an answer to these questions. In one of the youngest and rapidly growing areas of linguistic research, mathematical models and simulations of competition based developments have been applied to instances of language change. By matching the predicted and observed developmental trends, researchers gauge existing models to the needs of linguistic applications and evaluate the fruitfulness of evolutionary models in linguistics. The present volume confronts these studies with more empirically-based studies in creolization and historical language change which bear on key concepts of evolutionary models. What does it mean for a linguistic construction to survive its competitors? How do the interacting factors in phases of creolization differ from those in ordinary language change, and how - consequently - might Creole languages differ structurally from older languages? Some of the authors, finally, also address the question how different aspects of our linguistic competence tie in with our more elementary cognitive capacities. The volume contains contributions by Brady Clark et al., Elly van Gelderen, Alain Kihm, Manfred Krifka, Wouter Kusters, Robert van Rooij, Anette Rosenbach, John McWhorter, Teresa Satterfield, Michael Tomasello and Elizabeth C. Traugott. The book brings together contributions from two areas of research: the study of language evolution by means of methods from artifical intelligence/artificial life (like computer simulations and analytic mathematical methods) on the one hand, and empirically oriented research from historical linguistics and creolisation studies that uses concepts from evolutionary theory as a heuristic tool in a qualitative way. The book is thus interesting for readers from both traditions because it supplies them with information about relevant ongoing research and useful methods and data from the other camp.

Variation in Language: System- and Usage-based Approaches

Variation in Language: System- and Usage-based Approaches PDF Author: Aria Adli
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110346850
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 321

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Book Description
Where is the locus of language variation? In the grammar, outside the grammar or somewhere in between? Taking up the debate between system- and usage-based approaches, this volume provides new discussions of fundamental issues of language variation. It includes several highly insightful theoretical contributions as well as innovative empirical studies considering different types of data, the role of priming in language change and rare phenomena.

Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1986: Testimony of members of Congress and other interested individuals and organizations

Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1986: Testimony of members of Congress and other interested individuals and organizations PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : United States
Languages : en
Pages : 816

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Change, Transformation and Development

Change, Transformation and Development PDF Author: International Schumpeter Society. Meeting
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783790815450
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 472

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Book Description
This volume contains a collection of papers all concerned with the exploration of economic and social dynamics in relation to the innovation process and its outcomes. This theme is firmly rooted in the Schumpeterian tradition in which an economic perspective is mutually embedded in a wider awareness of the role of other disciplines. Indeed since Schumpeter's time, the degree of specialisation within the social sciences has risen many fold, new sub disciplines continue to emerge, highly specialised theoretical tools and empirical methods continue to be developed, and new fields for the study of management and business overlap with the more traditional social sciences. There is, consequently, a need for connecting principles to offset the dangers of intellectual fragmentation. Evolutionary economics and evolutionary analysis more generally, certainly provide some of these connecting principles. The various contributions to this volume reflect upon this research programme in a number of ways.

Heterochrony

Heterochrony PDF Author: Michael L. McKinney
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475707738
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 437

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Book Description
The authors outline evolutionary thought from pre-Darwinian biology to current research on the subject. They broadly label the factors of evolution as intrinsic and extrinsic, with Darwin favoring the latter by emphasizing the process of natural selection and later followers of Darwin carrying t

New perspectives on economic development

New perspectives on economic development PDF Author: Fu Lai Tony Yu
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers
ISBN: 9086861601
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 190

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Book Description
This book is the first of its kind to use Austrian subjectivism to analyze issues in economic development. Unlike scholars in mainstream neoclassical economics who explain economic development by quantitative growth models, this book attempts to understand economic progress in human agency perspective. In this approach, human agency is placed at the centre of economic analysis. This book begins with a review of the theories of economic development in the history of Austrian economics, with the intention of extending the contributions of major Austrian economists to development economics. After pointing out the weaknesses in the orthodox neoclassical approach to economic growth, the book then puts forward a subjectivist methodology which integrates the contributions of Max Weber, Alfred Schutz and Austrian Economists to interpret economic phenomena and policies. This chapter also serves as a methodological foundation for arguments elaborated in subsequent chapters. The rest of the book discusses important issues in economic development, namely, entrepreneurial process, national capabilities, innovation, trade, government, transition and catching up strategies for firms in latecomer economies. The book ends with concluding remarks and a proposal for a new research agenda in economic development. This book is well written, free from mathematics and is highly readable. It adds new insights not only in economics, but also in management, politics and social sciences. It will be useful to scholars, policy makers and students in economic development, entrepreneurship, theory of the firm, management of innovation, government policy, economic sociology, Austrian and evolutionary economics.

Approaches to Plant Evolutionary Ecology

Approaches to Plant Evolutionary Ecology PDF Author: G.P. Cheplick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199988331
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
Plant evolutionary ecology is a rapidly growing discipline which emphasizes that populations adapt and evolve not in isolation, but in relation to other species and abiotic environmental features such as climate. Although it departs from traditional evolutionary and ecological fields of study, the field is connected to branches of ecology, genetics, botany, conservation, and to a number of other fields of applied science, primarily through shared concepts and techniques. However, most books regarding evolutionary ecology focus on animals, creating a substantial need for scholarly literature with an emphasis on plants. Approaches to Plant Evolutionary Ecology is the first book to specifically explore the evolutionary characteristics of plants, filling the aforementioned gap in the literature on evolutionary ecology. Renowned plant ecologist Gregory P. Cheplick summarizes and synthesizes much of the primary literature regarding evolutionary ecology, providing a historical context for the study of plant populations from an evolutionary perspective. The book also provides summaries of both traditional (common gardens, reciprocal transplants) and modern (molecular genetic) approaches used to address questions about plant adaptation to a diverse group of abiotic and biotic factors. Cheplick provides a rigorously-written introduction to the rapidly growing field of plant evolutionary ecology that will appeal to undergraduate and graduate students with an interest in ecology and evolution, as well as educators who are teaching courses on related topics.

Life on the Farm

Life on the Farm PDF Author: Maxwell Tylden Masters
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Agriculture
Languages : en
Pages : 142

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Book Description


Life, War, Earth

Life, War, Earth PDF Author: John Protevi
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816684502
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 264

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Book Description
A deep exploration of the many possibilities inherent in linking Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy to contemporary science, John Protevi’s Life, War, Earth demonstrates how Deleuze’s ontology of the virtual, intensive, and actual can enhance our understanding of important issues in cognitive science, biology, and geography. Protevi illustrates how a Deleuzian approach can illuminate a wide range of concerns and subjects, including ancient and contemporary warfare, human individuation processes, the “granularity problem,” panpsychism, the E. coli bacterium, the assassination attempt on U.S. representative Gabrielle Giffords, and the affective dimensions of the Occupy movement. Frequently ambitious but always rooted in the empirical, Life, War, Earth shows how the social and the somatic are not opposed to each other but are interwoven on three time scales—the evolutionary, the developmental, and the behavioral—and on three political scales—the geopolitical, the bio-neuro-political, and the technopolitical. Deeply attuned to the internalities of the thought of Deleuze, the book offers a unique reading of his corpus and a useful method for applying Deleuzian techniques to the natural sciences, the social sciences, political phenomena, and contemporary events.

Plant Life on the Farm

Plant Life on the Farm PDF Author: Maxwell Tylden Masters
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Plant physiology
Languages : en
Pages : 148

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Book Description